[Free] Download New Updated (October 2016) ECCouncil 312-38 Real Exam 71-80

Ensurepass

QUESTION 71

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term. The ___________protocol is a feature of packet-based data transmission protocols. It is used to keep a record of the frame sequences sent and their respective acknowledgements received by both the users.

 

Correct Answer: Sliding Window

Explanation:

The Sliding Window protocol is a feature of packet-based data transmission protocols. It is used in the data link layer (OSI model) as well as in TCP (transport layer of the OSI model). It is used to keep a record of the frame sequences sent, and their respective acknowledgements received, by both the users. Its additional feature over a simpler protocol is that can allow multiple packets to be “in transmission” simultaneously, rather than waiting for each packet to be acknowledged before sending the next.In transmit flow control, sliding window is a variable-duration window that allows a sender to transmit a specified number of data units before an acknowledgment is received or before a specified event occurs.An example of a sliding window is one in which, after the sender fails to receive an acknowledgment for the first transmitted frame, the sender “slides” the window, i.e., resets the window, and sends a second frame. This process is repeated for the specified number of times before the sender interrupts transmission. Sliding window is sometimes called acknowledgment delay period.

 

 

QUESTION 72

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term. A ______________ is a set of tools that take Administrative control of a computer system without authorization by the computer owners and/or legitimate managers.

 

Correct Answer: rootkit

Explanation:

A rootkit is a set of tools that take Administrative control of a computer system without authorization by the computer owners and/or legitimate managers. A rootkit requires root access to be installed in the Linux operating system, but once installed, the attacker can get root access at any time. Rootkits have the following features:

They allow an attacker to run packet sniffers secretly to capture passwords.

They allow an attacker to set a Trojan into the operating system and thus open a backdoor for anytime access.

They allow an attacker to replace utility programs that can be used to detect the attacker’s activity.

They provide utilities for installing Trojans with the same attributes as legitimate programs.

 

 

QUESTION 73

Which of the following standards is an amendment to the original IEEE 802.11 and specifies security mechanisms for wireless networks?

 

A.

802.11b

B.

802.11e

C.

802.11i

D.

802.11a

 

Correct Answer: C

Explanation:

802.11i is an amendment to the original IEEE 802.11. This standard specifies security mechanisms for wireless networks. It replaced the short Authentication and privacy clause of the original standard with a detailed Security clause. In the process, it deprecated the broken WEP. 802.11i supersedes the previous security specification, Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), which was shown to have severe security weaknesses. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) had previously been introduced by the Wi-Fi Alliance as an intermediate solution to WEP insecurities. The Wi-Fi Alliance refers to their approved, interoperable implementation of the full 802.11i as WPA2, also called RSN (Robust Security Network). 802.11i makes use of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) block cipher, whereas WEP and WPA use the RC4 stream cipher. Answer option D is incorrect. 802.11a is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 specification that added a higher data rate of up to 54 Mbit/s using the 5 GHz band. It has seen widespread worldwide implementation, particularly within the corporate workspace. Using the 5 GHz band gives 802.11a a significant advantage, since the 2.4 GHz band is heavily used to the point of being crowded. Degradation caused by such conflicts can cause frequent dropped connections and degradation of service.

Answer option A is incorrect. 802.11b is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 specification that extended throughput up to 11 Mbit/s using the same 2.4 GHz band. This specification under the marketing name of Wi-Fi has been implemented all over the world. 802.11b is used in a point-to- multipoint configuration, wherein an access point communicates via an omni-directional antenna with one or more nomadic or mobile clients that are located in a coverage area around the access point.

Answer option B is incorrect. The 802.11e standard is a proposed enhancement to the 802.11a and 802.11b wireless LAN (WLAN) specifications. It offers quality of service (QoS) features, including the prioritization of data, voice, and video transmissions. 802.11e enhances the 802.11 Media Access Control layer (MAC layer) with a coordinated time division multiple access (TDMA) construct, and adds error-correcting mechanisms for delay-sensitive applications such as voice and video.

 

 

QUESTION 74

Which of the following tools is an open source network intrusion prevention and detection system that operates as a network sniffer and logs activities of the network that is matched with the predefined signatures?

 

A.

Dsniff

B.

KisMAC

C.

Snort

D.

Kismet

 

Correct Answer: C

Explanation:

Snort is an open source network intrusion prevention and detection system that operates as a network sniffer. It logs activities of the network that is matched with the predefined signatures. Signatures can be designed for a wide range of traffic, including Internet Protocol (IP), Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). The three main modes in which Snort can be configured are as follows:

Sniffer mode: It reads the packets of the network and displays them in a continuous stream on the console.

Packet logger mode: It logs the packets to the disk.

Network intrusion detection mode: It is the most complex and configurable configuration, allowing Snort to analyze network traffic for matches against a user-defined rule set.

Answer option A is incorrect. Dsniff is a set of tools that are used for sniffing passwords, e-mail, and HTTP traffic. Some of the tools of Dsniff include dsniff, arpredirect, macof, tcpkill, tcpnice, filesnarf, and mailsnarf. Dsniff is highly effective for sniffing both switched and shared networks. It uses the arpredirect and macof tools for switching across switched networks. It can also be used to capture authentication information for FTP, telnet, SMTP, HTTP, POP, NNTP, IMAP, etc.

Answer option D is incorrect. Kismet is a Linux-based 802.11 wireless network sniffer and intrusion detection system. It can work with any wireless card that supports raw monitoring (rfmon) mode. Kismet can sniff 802.11b, 802.11a, 802.11g, and 802.11n traffic. Kismet can be used for the following tasks:

 

clip_image002To identify networks by passively collecting packets

clip_image002[1]To detect standard named networks

clip_image002[2]To detect masked networks

clip_image002[3]To collect the presence of non-beaconing networks via data traffic

 

Answer option B is incorrect. KisMAC is a wireless network discovery tool for Mac OS X. It has a wide range of features, similar to those of Kismet, its Linux/BSD namesake and far exceeding those of NetStumbler, its closest equivalent on Windows. The program is geared towards the network security professionals, and is not as novice-friendly as the similar applications. KisMAC will scan for networks passively on supported cards, including Apple’s AirPort, AirPort Extreme, and many third-party cards. It will scan for networks actively on any card supported by Mac OS X itself.

Cracking of WEP and WPA keys, both by brute force, and exploiting flaws, such as weak scheduling and badly generated keys is supported when a card capable of monitor mode is used, and when packet reinsertion can be done with a supported card. The GPS mapping can be performed when an NMEA compatible GPS receiver is attached. Data can also be saved in pcap format and loaded into programs, such as Wireshark.

 

 

QUESTION 75

Which of the following is a non-profit organization that oversees the allocation of IP addresses, management of the DNS infrastructure, protocol parameter assignment, and root server system management?

 

A.

ANSI

B.

IEEE

C.

ITU

D.

ICANN

 

Correct Answer: D

Explanation:

ICANN stands for Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. ICANN is responsible for managing the assignment of domain names and IP addresses. ICANN’s tasks include responsibility for IP address space allocation, protocol identifier assignment, top-level domain name system management, and root server system management functions. Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a non-profit organization that oversees the allocation of IP addresses, management of the DNS infrastructure, protocol parameter assignment, and root server system management.

Answer option B is incorrect. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is an organization of engineers and electronics professionals who develop standards for hardware and software.

Answer option C is incorrect. The International Telecommunication Union is an agency of the United Nations which regulates information and communication technology issues. ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world and establishes worldwide standards. ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks.

Answer option A is incorrect. ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is the primary organization for fostering the development of technology standards in the United States. ANSI works with industry groups and is the U.S. member of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC). Long-established computer standards from ANSI include the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) and the Small Computer System Interface (SCSI).


 

 

QUESTION 76

With which of the following flag sets does the Xmas tree scan send a TCP frame to a remote device? Each correct answer represents a part of the solution. Choose all that apply.

 

A.

PUSH

B.

RST

C.

FIN

D.

URG

 

Correct Answer: ACD

Explanation:

With the URG, PUSH, and FIN flag sets, the Xmas tree scan sends a TCP frame to a remote device. The Xmas tree scan is called an Xmas tree scan because the alternating bits are turned on and off in the flags byte (00101001), much like the lights of a Christmas tree. Answer optio
n B is incorrect. The RST flag is not set when the Xmas tree scan sends a TCP frame to a remote device.

 

 

QUESTION 77

Network security is the specialist area, which consists of the provisions and policies adopted by the Network Administrator to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, misuse, modification, or denial of the computer network and network-accessible resources. For which of the following reasons is network security needed? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.

 

A.

To protect information from loss and deliver it to its destination properly

B.

To protect information from unwanted editing, accidentally or intentionally by unauthorized users

C.

To protect private information on the Internet

D.

To prevent a user from sending a message to another user with the name of a third person

 

Correct Answer: ABCD

Explanation:

Network security is needed for the following reasons:

 

clip_image002[4]To protect private information on the Internet

clip_image002[5]To protect information from unwanted editing, accidentally or intentionally by unauthorized users

clip_image002[6]To protect information from loss and deliver it to its destination properly

clip_image002[7]To prevent a user from sending a message to another user with the name of a third person

 

 

QUESTION 78

Which of the following policies helps in defining what users can and should do to use network and organization’s computer equipment?

 

A.

General policy

B.

Remote access policy

C.

IT policy

D.

User policy

 

Correct Answer: D

Explanation:

A user policy helps in defining what users can and should do to use network and organization’s computer equipment. It also defines what limitations are put on users for maintaining the network secure such as whether users can install programs on their workstations, types of programs users are using, and how users can access data.

Answer option C is incorrect. IT policy includes general policies for the IT department. These policies are intended to keep the network secure and stable. It includes the following:

 

clip_image002[8]Virus incident and security incident

clip_image002[9]Backup policy

clip_image002[10]Client update policies

clip_image002[11]Server configuration, patch update, and modification policies (security)

clip_image002[12]Firewall policies Dmz policy, email retention, and auto forwarded email policy

 

Answer option A is incorrect. It defines the high level program policy and business continuity plan.

Answer option B is incorrect. Remote access policy is a document that outlines and defines acceptable methods of remotely connecting to the internal network.

 

 

QUESTION 79

Fill in the blank with the appropriate term. In computing, ______________ is a class of data storage devices that read their data in sequence.

 

Correct Answer: SAM

Explanation:

In computing, sequential access memory (SAM) is a class of data storage devices that read their data in sequence. This is in contrast to random access memory (RAM) where data can be accessed in any order. Sequential access devices are usually a form of magnetic memory.While sequential access memory is read in sequence, access can still be made to arbitrary locations by “seeking” to the requested location. Magnetic sequential access memory is typically used for secondary storage in general-purpose computers due to their higher density at lower cost compared
to RAM, as well as resistance to wear and non-volatility. Examples of SAM devices include hard disks, CD-ROMs, and magnetic tapes.

 

 

QUESTION 80

Which of the following are the responsibilities of the disaster recovery team? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.

 

A.

To monitor the execution of the disaster recovery plan and assess the results

B.

To modify and update the disaster recovery plan according to the lessons learned from previous disaster recovery efforts

C.

To notify management, affected personnel, and third parties about the disaster

D.

To initiate the execution of the disaster recovery procedures

 

Correct Answer: ABCD

Explanation:

The responsibilities of the disaster recovery team are as follows:

 

To develop, deploy, and monitor the implementation of appropriate disaster recovery plans after analysis of business objectives and threats to organizations

To notify management, affected personnel, and third parties about the disaster

To initiate the execution of the disaster recovery procedures

To monitor the execution of the disaster recovery plan and assess the results

To return operations to normal conditions

To modify and update the disaster recovery plan according to the lessons learned from previous disaster recovery efforts

To increase the level of the organization’s disaster recovery preparedness by conducting mock drills, regular DR systems testing, and threat analysis

To create awareness among various stakeholders of the organization by conducting training and awareness sessions

 

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